— Volume VI No. 2: May 2010 —

Homeland Security-Related Education and the Private Liberal Arts College

Gregory Moore, Kelley Cronin, Mary Breckenridge, and John Hatzadony

The growth of academic programs in intelligence studies and homeland security education since 9/11 reflects the growing concern about the nation’s security and the ability both to anticipate threats and respond to them. Today dozens of academic programs have emerged around the country offering a variety of curriculum approaches and levels of study. Students seeking to pursue careers in homeland security, emergency management, or intelligence analysis can choose from offerings in homeland security related fields at large research institutions, mid-size colleges and universities, smaller private liberal arts colleges, and distance learning institutions where they may earn certificates, associates, bachelors, or masters degrees, and even doctorates. At present there is no general consensus on how a homeland security or intelligence studies curriculum should be offered, although recommendations have been made by the Homeland Security Defense Education Consortium regarding the curricula for undergraduate and graduate level programs. 1 Nor has any accrediting body for such programs come into existence as of this writing. 2

These issues have been addressed at a variety of conferences, seminars, and colloquia but it is likely that some time will pass before any real agreement is reached on what would comprise an ideal academic program in intelligence studies or homeland security. Currently, those programs in existence tend to reflect the resources, capabilities, support mechanisms, and faculty interests within those institutions that offer them. Not all colleges or universities offer majors or minors in these new disciplines, nor do all of them have graduate programs. Many schools have opted for certificate programs at either the undergraduate or graduate level which are directed at adult learners seeking to build on existing knowledge or skill sets or at those individuals considering a career change. Certificate programs enable these schools to become involved in homeland security education with a minimum allocation of resources and without subjecting themselves to the more complex and time consuming process of developing a baccalaureate or graduate program. Many homeland security programs are focused on educating first responders and few offer an advanced degree to support homeland security efforts on a public policy and administrative level. There is a real need for well-educated and well-prepared individuals with policymaking and administrative abilities in both the public and private sectors today. It is our belief that a small liberal arts college provides an ideal environment to educate security and intelligence professionals.

Liberal Arts-Based Homeland Security Education: Advantages and Disadvantages

Teaching homeland security programs in a small liberal arts college has a number of advantages. Rather than focusing on and specializing in one area, a liberal arts program provides the student with a broad-based education. The student studies a variety of different subjects to gain a holistic understanding of the world around him or her. In today’s global environment, this knowledge and understanding is crucial. Such a rounded skill set is required for security analysts, administrators, and policy decision makers. Critical thinking, research, and communication become imperative. Those with a general knowledge base in many different areas are better problem solvers and communicators. A liberal arts education teaches the student how to think, learn, and problem solve. Ultimately, the liberal arts-educated student knows how to train his or her mind to think critically and in an ordered fashion. He or she is better equipped to take general knowledge and develop an intellectual capacity with it. He or she is also better prepared to deal with a diverse group of people, scenarios and problems.

A critical advantage for a small college is the ability to respond to market demands in a timely manner by developing new programs. Any new initiative must be mission sensitive. Part of the strategic plan at Notre Dame College is to attract new students by developing new programs. From the enrollment perspective, this is a necessary survival tactic – the more academic options a college has to offer, the more students it can expect to attract. While the goal is enrollment driven, the responsibility for achieving the goal falls to the Office of Academic Affairs since it is the faculty who has the authority to develop curriculum. Because the bureaucratic structure at an institution such as Notre Dame College is not considerable, it can be easier to facilitate an effective partnership between faculty and administration to develop new programs that are both mission sensitive and responsive to a changing marketplace.

Despite the advantages, for a small private liberal arts college developing a program in intelligence studies or homeland security education can be quite a challenge. Normally institutions such as these have limited resources to direct to such a project, and must utilize what assets are available as expeditiously as possible. Not only must faculty and administration buy into the program, but the institution must consider the types of students it wishes to recruit, whether or not there are competing programs in the region, the opportunities for employment for graduates locally or regionally, as well as at the federal level, and if there are agencies and expert practitioners available who can serve as advisers, partners, or faculty. Consideration has to be given to what can be taught most effectively and who will teach the subjects within the new curriculum. The program’s curriculum design will have to reflect all of these considerations as well. Finally, the proposed new program or curriculum must pass successfully through both the institutional and state processes for approval.

There are certain advantages, however, to building an intelligence studies or homeland security education program at a small, private liberal college such as Notre Dame College. These include a strong faculty commitment to teaching, low student-to-faculty ratios, greater ease for student interactions with faculty, and the enhanced level of personal attention students often enjoy. Smaller colleges may have more flexibility in designing new majors or curricula, because there may be fewer layers of faculty and administrative approval processes to work through. It may also be easier to develop partnerships within the college’s academic divisions or departments in regard to the coursework offered within the intelligence or homeland security curriculum or in tying existing courses into the curriculum as supporting electives or general education requirements. Including courses from other academic departments in the intelligence or homeland security curriculum can make it easier to win faculty support as a whole, since those faculty may come to feel that they have a stake in the program. This is the approach that was taken as a program in intelligence studies was developed at Notre Dame College.

INTELLIGENCE STUDIES AT NOTRE DAME

Initial research into the existence of intelligence studies programs in 2003-2004, when the process of developing an intelligence studies program began, led to the discovery that there were very few colleges or universities offering any type of program of this kind and that existing curriculum designs varied widely. Some institutions simply placed two or three courses relating to intelligence within a larger program, such as international studies, while others offered a more comprehensive curriculum emphasizing both theoretical and applied knowledge. Given Notre Dame College’s focus on career-oriented liberal arts programs, the latter approach seemed like the best way to design the proposed program. The College’s location in Cleveland, Ohio afforded the opportunity to consult with practitioners working with the federal government, in law enforcement, and from the private sector. These individuals unanimously supported a curriculum design that included both applied and theoretical coursework.

Curriculum Design

The process of building the intelligence studies program went through three phases. In the fall of 2004 the College launched a six-course certificate in intelligence analysis. The courses offered were: Introduction to Intelligence Analysis, Methods of Research and Analysis, Writing for Intelligence, Terrorism, Competitive Intelligence in a Global Economy, and an independent study. The certificate program was directed toward adult learners who were already working in intelligence or a related profession and who were seeking to enhance their knowledge and skills, or who were considering a career change into an intelligence-related field. The program was administered through the College’s Center for Professional Development with courses offered on weekends. The program instructors were adjunct faculty who were current or retired practitioners with teaching experience, an academic background, or both.

Meanwhile, the Department of History and Political Science, which was where the new undergraduate program in intelligence studies would be housed, had undertaken the task of designing that curriculum. As noted above, the decision was to design a curriculum in intelligence studies that would include courses that would teach students basic skill sets needed to compete successfully for an entry-level position as an intelligence analyst as well as expose them to intelligence theory, practice, and history. A set of core courses would be offered, supplemented by the College’s general education core and required electives. Finally, students would be required to complete twelve credits of foreign language study in either Arabic or Spanish, the only languages currently being taught at Notre Dame College. The final curriculum includes:

  • Introduction to U.S. Intelligence
  • Writing for Intelligence
  • Methods of Research & Analysis
  • History of Terrorism
  • Advanced Research & Analysis
  • Competitive (Business) Intelligence
  • Methods of Financial Investigation & Research
  • Intelligence and National Security
  • Strategic Intelligence

Each course listed above counts for three credits. In addition, students complete the College’s general education core, including courses in critical thinking, computer skills, mathematics, laboratory science, social science, literature, and writing. Elective coursework in American Foreign Policy, International Relations, International Law, Comparative Politics, non-western history, 3 Anthropology, Economics, Literature, Business, and a foreign language supplement the required coursework. The student also completes an internship and a senior research project. The curriculum takes note of the private sector’s interest in intelligence analysis by offering two courses related to competitive (business) intelligence in the core.

As with the certificate design, various practitioners were consulted, both locally and nationally. When asked what skills a prospective intelligence analyst should possess, the universal response emphasized good critical thinking/reasoning/analytical abilities, strong communications skills (both oral and written), and good computer skills. Repeatedly, practitioners argued for a solid liberal arts education as the foundation for preparing future analysts. This input greatly affected the ultimate design of the intelligence studies curriculum. In addition, those consulted either expressed a willingness to teach in the program, helped recruit instructors, or agreed to serve as members of an advisory board.

Program Implementation

The curriculum design was completed by the end of the 2003-2004 academic year and preparations for seeking faculty approval for the new program began. The process required departmental approval (a given since the department chair was directing the development of the program), followed by approval of the faculty Educational Policy and Practices Committee, the Steering Committee of the Faculty Senate, and, finally, the Faculty Senate.

Prior to beginning the process of moving the proposed program forward, a number of senior faculty members were consulted for advice and suggestions regarding the best method of doing so. A valuable suggestion was to prepare a binder containing a description of the proposed program, the rationale for adding it to the curriculum, course descriptions, and sample course syllabi. This proved invaluable in gaining faculty approval. Presentations about the program were made to the Educational Policy and Practices Committee, which unanimously recommended approval, and to the Faculty Senate, where approval by a two-thirds majority was necessary to add the curriculum to the College’s list of program offerings.

The faculty responded enthusiastically (particularly to the argument that the intelligence studies program represented a nearly ideal liberal arts program) and the curriculum easily won approval. Faculty objections were few, although some expressed concern about the creation of a “spy school.” This objection was overcome by emphasizing that the program was designed to prepare students for entry level positions as intelligence analysts, rather than as espionage agents. A reiteration of the skills sets needed by analysts and the value of a liberal arts foundation in their preparation for careers as analysts served to overcome those concerns, as did noting that analysts are also needed in law enforcement and the private sector. Administration endorsement was likewise easily obtained, as the president of the college was a strong supporter of the proposed program. The approval process was completed by the end of the fall 2004 semester.

Finally, in order to give the College’s admissions office the maximum amount of time to recruit students for the program, the decision was made to make the intelligence studies program a concentration within the history major. This enabled the College to circumvent seeking accreditation of the program as a new major by the Ohio Board of Regents, a process that would have delayed launching the program until the 2006-2007 academic year.

In 2006, as a result of interest expressed by members of the private sector in Northeast Ohio, a second certificate program in competitive intelligence was created. Like the original certificate, the curriculum consisted of six courses and was administered through the Center for Professional Development. Courses offered for this certificate included: Introduction to Intelligence Analysis, Competitive Intelligence in a Global Economy, Research and Decision Making for Competitive Intelligence, Analysis Techniques for Competitive Intelligence, and an independent study. These courses were also offered on weekends. 4

A HOMELAND SECURITY GRADUATE DEGREE: THE NEXT STEP

By 2008, the Department of History and Political Science had begun to consider adding a graduate program related to homeland security to the College’s curriculum. The College had only one graduate program in place, in education, and adding a master’s degree on top of the undergraduate program in intelligence studies seemed like a logical step. Because the College had begun offering distance learning courses, using that platform as the basis for creating and marketing a graduate degree in homeland security would allow for a broader reach in seeking prospective students. The decision to develop a graduate curriculum in homeland security also took into account the fact that this field represented a better opportunity for the College. While there was only one homeland security-related graduate program in the state, two established graduate programs in intelligence studies existed relatively close by. 5 Competing with them made less sense than moving in a different, and hopefully more innovative, direction. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to direct our efforts toward a program of graduate study in homeland security. After some discussion within the History and Political Science Department, it was decided to develop a program in Security and Policy Studies. The idea was presented to the College’s vice president of academic affairs, who was very receptive to the proposal.

Curriculum Design

As with intelligence studies, homeland security education presented the challenge of being an emerging academic discipline. Unlike intelligence, which is a single area of inquiry and study, homeland security is a much wider field that is inclusive of a number of subsets that can be developed as individual areas of knowledge. The challenge confronting a smaller institution such as Notre Dame College was to determine how to effectively create a graduate degree program in homeland security that would take advantage of the institution’s strengths while utilizing its limited resources for maximum effect.

Since the inception of the Department of Homeland Security, government and academia have been striving for a precise definition of “homeland security.” However, for educators at least, the real problem lay in the broad framework and architecture of homeland security almost a decade later, which includes emergency preparedness, intelligence, critical infrastructure protection, border security, transportation security, biodefense, radiological detection, and security research and development. These concentration areas, in connection with a core introduction and research methods course, fill out the basics of a traditional thirty-six-credit MA/MS degree.

Curricula in the immediate aftermath of 9/11 were sector or thematic specific and generally dominated by the field in which the sponsoring educational institution had a previous specialty (which is still often the case today); i.e., law enforcement, security, or emergency management. Such programs concentrate and reinforce tactical mindsets when, in reality, the graduate education should be strategic in nature – by far a much more difficult and under-appreciated endeavor.

As noted above, due to the particularly broad nature of homeland security policy and management, the desire to offer concentrations in one or more of these areas initially resulted in a ponderous and administratively complex graduate degree program that would have taxed many universities let alone a small, liberal arts institution like Notre Dame College. While these areas were included in the original curriculum design, further reflection led to the realization that a more integrated approach might result in a better outcome. The result is an integrated, policy-focused curriculum that is strategically oriented and plays to the strengths of a small liberal arts institution. This fusion of the multiple elements that fall under the aegis of homeland security into one program focusing on security and policy administration (rather than a single track or multiple tracks dealing with the variety of elements with which homeland security is concerned) offers a new and innovative approach to homeland security education at the graduate level.

Accordingly, the synthesis of a multi-disciplinary graduate curriculum for Homeland Security Studies falls neatly into the realm of the modern liberal arts college. The availability to state, local, and federal professionals of emergency management and security training eliminates the need to repeat this training at the graduate level. Rather, what is needed is an integrative educational structure that brings specialists, line officers, and tacticians into an intensive space that exposes them to non-specialty fields, theory, and the educational transition to staff officer positions and an integrated strategic perspective. Intellectual and professional advancement in the field does not allow the luxury of tunnel-vision mindsets forcing a student to specialize in either security or emergency management. A review of programs of study offered at other institutions found that most programs were expansions of departmental core competencies: law enforcement, emergency management, fire science, and so forth. These programs were designated as Homeland Security Studies with the addition of a core course, a research methods course and a thesis, and then marketed as something new. This is not to say that the programs were being disreputable – far from it; but by reinforcing their own core competencies as opposed to expanding into new fields demanded by the new paradigm of homeland security, students were not being exposed to what they didn’t know. The Notre Dame College program aimed to resolve the issue with a multi-disciplinary graduate program.

Ultimately, this has been the approach pursued at Notre Dame College. The curriculum that has been initiated blends on-site and on-line best pedagogical practices from other fields (particularly MBA/EMBA and Intelligence Analysis programs).

The limitations of a master’s degree curriculum corresponding to a thirty-six-credit-hour program similarly simplified the program. Rather than have a traditional core requirement and concentration system, the curriculum was revamped into a general, integrative and strategic education program in which all courses are required. 6 This organizational structure also allows students to enter at multiple points since all courses are required (although there are prerequisite courses generally required).

To accomplish the desired learning outcomes, 7 three on-site weekend intensive courses are included at the beginning, intermediate, and end-stages of the program to allow for cohort integration and team-building. The remaining course work is organized into on-line courses, eight weeks in length, resulting in a two-year program of study. The final curriculum design is given below:

  • Leadership, Ethics and Decision-making (two credits)
  • Security Policy and Program Analysis (three credits)
  • Issues in Homeland Security (three credits)
  • Terrorism & Counterterrorism (three credits)
  • Critical Infrastructure: Threat Analysis & Resiliency (three credits)
  • Strategic Intelligence & Warning (three credits)
  • Analytical Crisis Exercise Program (two credits)
  • Geopolitics (three credits)
  • Transnational Threats (three credits)
  • Biodefense and Disease Surveillance (three credits)
  • Science, Technology and Security (three credits)
  • Capstone I (three credits)
  • Capstone II (two credits)

The final thirty-six-credit curriculum represents in a unique, cutting-edge program integrating all eight major field areas of Homeland Security as well as six hours of geopolitical and transnational threat analysis, two areas generally disregarded in Homeland Security programs. The latter are included due to faculty members’ field experience in law enforcement and homeland security and intelligence that demonstrated the effect of international events on U.S. Homeland Security policy and programs and highlighted the general lack of international experience and knowledge on the part of state and local safety and security professionals.

A mid-program Analytical Crisis Exercise is included as an on-site integrative experience to assess students’ strategic analysis, decision-making and forecasting skills. Finally, a two-part capstone experience of five credits is included. Rather than a traditional six-credit MA/MS thesis project, a team-oriented real-world experience has been included. State, regional, and local administrations, along with private enterprises, are invited to participate and offer research projects for completion by one of the program teams. Participating enterprises are required to provide access to the necessary internal data and a single point-of-contact for each team. In return, the enterprise receives an expertly researched and analyzed strategic product at no cost. Students in turn receive the necessary research and analysis training on a real-world project that includes a final, live briefing, on campus, to the client enterprise and graduate faculty. It was ultimately concluded that a traditional MA/MS thesis project provided little real-world relevance to students, researchers, and practitioners and that a multi-disciplinary team approach (again borrowed from other bench-mark programs) provided the best assessment tool.

Finally, the decision to introduce a complete systematic course of study allowed the integration of educational elements across a number of course programs as opposed to a single three credit course. Thus the final program not only integrates subject matter but a course of study within the courses themselves. For example, case studies of disaster recovery and resiliency can be included in the thematic course as well as biodefense or terrorism. Overall, the Security Policy Studies graduate program at Notre Dame College aims to progress the developing field of Homeland Security Studies and Policy with a unique program of study.

The Implementation Process

As noted earlier, the implementation of an undergraduate intelligence studies curriculum at Notre Dame College did require administration approval, but because the program was established as a concentration within an existing major (history) there was no need to seek state approval for the program. That, however, was not the case in regard to our proposed graduate program. Like the undergraduate program, the graduate program went through a series of steps within the College to get the necessary support and approval before being submitted to the State of Ohio for review. Similarly to the undergraduate program, the graduate curriculum had to get the endorsement of the Department of History and Political Science, the Division of Humanities, the faculty Graduate Policy and Planning Committee, the Office of Academic Affairs, the Office of the President, and final approval by the College’s Board of Trustees.

The primary difference between shepherding the undergraduate program through the internal consent process and obtaining consent for the graduate program was that the graduate program did not require a vote of the entire faculty, but only those faculty members involved in graduate instruction. This process went very smoothly and was completed before the end of the fall 2009 semester. Thus, a graduate curriculum development process that had begun in the spring of 2009 was ready for presentation to the Ohio Board of Regents by the end of the year, in the form of a formal proposal for approval to offer the new degree program to prospective students.

It should be noted that the relative ease in receiving internal approval for the project may reflect the College’s efforts to grow enrollment by increasing program offerings and to enhance its distance learning programs. Also, the proposed new program, if approved by the Board of Regents, will be only the second graduate program offered by Notre Dame College. Therefore, both faculty and administration were receptive to the proposal as it fits in to the College’s strategic planning and mission. Additionally, the graduate program will serve as a complement to the College’s undergraduate program in intelligence studies, thereby making it a natural addition to the current curriculum.

Even before the internal approval process had been completed, preparations for seeking state approval had gotten underway. A preliminary proposal was forwarded to the state board of regents in July 2009; the state responded by returning a new template for submitting new academic program proposals and work immediately began on gathering the required information and writing it up in the format required by the state. This required an intensive faculty effort and the involvement of the College’s Office of Academic Affairs. The role of the administration at this point in the development of a new academic proposal was critical.

It is the responsibility of the college administration – or, more specifically, the vice president for academic affairs – to assist the faculty in program development efforts. Although assisting in the development process can take many forms (such as course releases for development and financial incentives), a college must have committed faculty members who have the passion and energy to see this bureaucratic process through. The faculty typically have great ideas for new curricula and new majors. But when it comes to actually developing an entire program and seeking the various approvals, excitement can quickly wane. All programs must follow internal governance approval guidelines, seek state approval, and more often than not in today’s highly regulatory environment, also seek their regional accreditors’ approval.

Comprehension of and adherence to the processes and protocols required by various state and regional bodies is painstaking, but necessary. In most colleges, the vice president for academic affairs has the background and experience in addressing regulatory issues. Using a collaborative approach, an administrator should assist with the sections of the program proposal that are primarily administrative. Faculty know their own discipline; they don’t know the administrative “ins and outs” that are important in proposal/program development. It is also the administrator’s role to help keep the faculty members involved motivated. This can be achieved when the administrator becomes as involved as the faculty, when the administrator offers encouragement, and when the administrator recognizes “good work.”

Another important role for a college administrator is keeping those involved on task and on a timeline. The various faculty duties – from course preparations to committee obligations to advising - can intrude upon and consume all of one’s time. At Notre Dame College, weekly or biweekly meetings of the team served to keep the energy level where it needed to be in the process as the vice president of academic affairs brought the resources of the Office of Academic Affairs and the faculty together to provide the necessary data required by the Board of Regents.

Meeting weekly or biweekly as necessary, the process of completing the ten-part template required by the state was accomplished over a period of several months. Data about the College’s mission, accreditation, resources, assessment procedures, student resources, and, of course, the curriculum was collected and prepared for presentation to the Board of Regents. The final product was a document more than forty pages in length which was forwarded to the board in February 2010. On March 1, 2010 the board responded with a number of comments and questions, and indicated that it was prepared to move forward with the final step in the approval process: a visit by an accrediting team to the campus in May. Should the College complete this process successfully, it will be able to begin marketing the program and recruiting students.

CONCLUSION

We believe there is a need for career-oriented or focused academic programs in the twenty-first century, and we also would argue that a strong grounding in the liberal arts will enhance the preparation of today’s students for success in their respective endeavors. Programs in homeland security education and intelligence studies are excellent examples of these types of career-oriented academic programs of study that are currently in demand and likely to remain so for the foreseeable future. They also offer the smaller liberal arts-focused institutions an excellent way to add innovative offerings to their curricula, prepare their students for new career opportunities, and contribute to enhancing the nation’s security.

We are also aware that programs in intelligence and homeland security education or studies are new to academia and a great deal of discussion is underway in regard to their acceptance as scholarly disciplines within higher education. Numerous issues need to be resolved in order for these programs to achieve the status they seek as recognized academic disciplines, including general agreement on curricula, the development of a body of literature, the education and training of new generations of teachers and scholars, the question of accreditation, and how scholars and practitioners can best work together to bring this all about. From the inception of our intelligence studies program, Notre Dame College has been actively involved in the process and will continue take part in these considerations. Homeland security and intelligence education is an arena where small colleges can make a notable contribution and should not shy away from doing so.

As in any organization, higher education follows a life cycle; colleges and universities are continuously beginning and ending programs. Unencumbered by a massive bureaucracy, Notre Dame College has been able to employ talented resources to develop programs that attract student interest because of future job opportunities. Commitment, encouragement, and recognition by the administrative team is critical, along with the ability to work in partnership with a talented faculty that shares the commitment to the growth of the College, to the development of exciting and innovative programs that reflect the institution’s mission, and that combine a rigorous liberal arts education with career-focused programs. There is definitely a place for the small private liberal arts college in the realm of homeland security or intelligence education. We hope that our efforts will encourage other institutions such as ours to take on the challenge of contributing to the evolution of these programs into true academic disciplines while taking on the challenge of preparing the next generation of security and intelligence professionals.

Gregory Moore is professor of History and Political Science, director of the Center for Intelligence Studies and Chairperson of the Department of History and Political Science at Notre Dame College in Cleveland, Ohio. He holds a doctorate in American Diplomatic History from Kent State University. Dr. Moore may be contacted at gmoore@ndc.edu.

Kelley A. Cronin is an associate professor at Notre Dame College of Ohio. She is the author of a book chapter and several recent publications in the areas of homeland security, policing, and administrative theory.

Mary B. Breckenridge serves as the vice president for Academic Affairs at Notre Dame College. Dr. Breckenridge has a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science from Virginia Tech, a Master of Science in Education from the University of Southern California, teaching certification in Social Science and a doctoral degree in Educational Leadership from Indiana University of Pennsylvania.

Dr. John Hatzadony is an assistant professor of Intelligence Studies at the Notre Dame College Center for Intelligence Studies in Cleveland, Ohio and director of the forthcoming graduate program in Security Policy Studies. He holds a PhD in Political Science from Case Western Reserve University and is a Certified Anti Money Laundering Specialist

APPENDIX

Notre Dame College

Security Policy Studies Program Goals and Objectives

GOAL 1: Provide future public and private leaders with the necessary framework and practical skills to succeed in contemporary and future security environments.

  • Objective 1: Understand and apply the process of designing and implementing policy to protect the safety and freedom of the public.

    • SPS 510: Security Policy and Program Analysis
    • SPS 530: Critical Infrastructure: Threat Analysis and Resiliency
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
  • Objective 2: Demonstrate an understanding and appreciation of the legal and ethical dimensions of personal and professional judgments to be applied in the private or public sector and in positions of leadership.

    • SPS 500: Leadership, Ethics and Decision-Making
    • SPS 511: Issues in Homeland Security
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
  • Objective 3: Compare, contrast and analyze different risk management methodologies for resource allocation based on threat, probability and magnitude.

    • SPS 510: Security Policy and Program Analysis
    • SPS 531: Strategic Intelligence & Warning
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program

GOAL 2: Prepare students to develop strategies, plans and programs for man-made and natural incidents across the spectrum including: terrorism, mass-casualty events and pandemic outbreaks:

  • Objective 1: Evaluate current homeland security policies, strategies, operational theories and issues from both domestic and international perspectives.

    • SPS 511: Issues in Homeland Security
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
    • SPS 610: Transnational Threats
  • Objective 2: Describe and critically analyze policy issues related to cooperation among the international community, state governments, local jurisdictions and private industry in facilitating intelligence operations, infrastructure protections and resiliency, emergency preparedness, responses to terrorism and terrorist incidents and the development of homeland security.

    • SPS 520: Terrorism & Counterterrorism
    • SPS 530: Critical Infrastructure: Threat Analysis and Resiliency
    • SPS 531: Strategic Intelligence & Warning
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
    • SPS 610: Transnational Threats
    • SPS 620: Biodefense and Disease Surveillance
  • Objective 3: Understand, explain and respond to the vast array of transnational man-made and naturally occurring threat vectors from areas other than the student’s specialty field (including, but not limited to: detection sensors, target hardening, crowd control, public health and event planning).

    • SPS 520: Terrorism & Counterterrorism
    • SPS 540: Geopolitics
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
    • SPS 620: Biodefense and Disease Surveillance
    • SPS 630: Science, Technology and Security

GOAL 3: Prepare students to contribute to the development of the emerging discipline of homeland security through the application of domestic and international security policy analysis, related theories and research into effective practice.

  • Objective 1: Demonstrate the critical thinking and reasoning skills necessary to provide leadership and support to the public/private security community.

    • SPS 500: Leadership, Ethics and Decision-Making
    • SPS 510: Security Policy and Program Analysis
    • SPS 531: Strategic Intelligence & Warning
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
    • SPS 640: Capstone I
  • Objective 2: Critically analyze current security policies and practices and be able to apply decision-making tools and methodologies in order to foster and implement ideas to resolve or overcome difficult homeland security issues.

    • SPS 510: Security Policy and Program Analysis<
    • SPS 550: Analytical Crisis Exercise Program
    • SPS 640: Capstone I
    • SPS 641: Capstone II
  • Objective 3: Contribute original research and scholarship in order to advance the development and growth of the academic discipline.

    • SPS 640: Capstone I
    • SPS 641: Capstone II

  1. See the Homeland Security Defense Education Consortium recommendations at http://www.chds.us/resources/uapi/HSDEC_Graduate_Course_Recommendations.ppt and http://www.chds.us/resources/uapi/mcc_final_brief_ver_2.ppt . To date the International Association for Intelligence Education (IAFIE) has not made any recommendations regarding curricula for intelligence education studies programs at the college/university level. Dr. Moore participated in the HSDEC 2009 Model Undergraduate Curriculum conference, and serves as vice chair of IAFIE.
  2. The Homeland Security Defense Education Consortium Association (HSDECA) is seeking recognition from the Department of Education as an accrediting body for Homeland Security Education; IAFIE is in the process of considering whether or not to attempt to become an accrediting body for intelligence education or intelligence studies programs.
  3. Students select from courses in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Middle Eastern, African, or Latin American History.
  4. Today, as a result of Notre Dame College’s entrance into distance learning, the certificate programs have ceased to offer face-to-face courses. The certificate programs have been revamped and will now offer four eight-week online courses. Conversion of the certificate courses to an online format is presently underway and is scheduled for completion by June 2010.
  5. These programs are offered at Mercyhurst College and the University of Detroit Mercy.
  6. Interim iterations of the curriculum were as high as forty-eight credit hours (one faculty member advocated a sixty-credit curriculum), but this was eventually reduced to a traditional thirty-six-credit course of study.
  7. Program goals and objectives may be found in the appendix included at the end of this article.

Copyright © 2010 by the author(s). Homeland Security Affairs is an academic journal available free of charge to individuals and institutions. Because the purpose of this publication is the widest possible dissemination of knowledge, copies of this journal and the articles contained herein may be printed or downloaded and redistributed for personal, research or educational purposes free of charge and without permission. Any commercial use of Homeland Security Affairs or the articles published herein is expressly prohibited without the written consent of the copyright holder. The copyright of all articles published in Homeland Security Affairs rests with the author(s) of the article. Homeland Security Affairs is the online journal of the Naval Postgraduate School Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS). http://www.hsaj.org

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