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Volume XV Notes from the Editor

The September issue of Homeland Security Affairs marks the rollout of a new recurring feature called Policy Perspectives. From its founding, CHDS has had twin missions of educating and informing policymakers as well as furthering scholarship in the discipline of Homeland Security. In order to better serve both constituencies, HSA will begin to provide its

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Capability Gaps Threatening CBP’s Present and Future Operations

By Thomas P.M. Barnett Abstract Thanks to an enduring burst of domestic populism, the United States is knee-deep in a tumultuous renegotiation of its superpower relationship with the world. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) faces two possible paths: transformation or trivialization. The agency either embraces the mission-creep demanded by this moment or surrenders responsibility to

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Book review: Spying: Assessing US Domestic Intelligence Since 9/11 By Darren E. Tromblay

By Erik Dahl Suggested Citation Dahl, Erik. (2019) Review of Spying: Assessing US Domestic Intelligence Since 9/11, by Darren E. Tromblay. Homeland Security Affairs 15, Article 4. https://www.hsaj.org/articles/15391  . This book is a welcome addition to the rather small literature on domestic and homeland intelligence in the United States. It will interest more than just

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How to Learn About Homeland Security

By Christopher Bellavita Abstract The article describes how one can begin to learn about homeland security. Starting with institutionally approved, rather than objectively-tested and validated, foundational knowledge may provide academic order, but the order is achieved at the cost of constraining prematurely what homeland security could become. The method presented in this essay starts with

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How FEMA Could Lose America’s Next Great War

Si Vis Pacem, Para Bellum (If You Want Peace, Prepare for War) By H. Quinton Lucie Abstract The United States lacks a comprehensive strategy and supporting programs to support and defend the population of the United States during times of war and to mobilize, sustain and expand its defense industrial base while under attack from

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Incentivizing Cyber Security Investment in the Power Sector Using An Extended Cyber Insurance Framework

By Jack Rosson, Mason Rice, Juan Lopez, and David Fass Abstract Collaboration between the DHS Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) and public- sector partners has revealed that a dearth of cyber- incident data combined with the unpredictability of cyber attacks have contributed to a shortfall in first-party cyber insurance protection in the critical infrastructure

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Defending Cities Against Nuclear Terrorism: Analysis of A Radiation Detector Network for Ground Based Traffic

By Edward Cazalas Abstract This article describes a specific, promising concept for a traffic-based radiation detector network concept deployed on roads/highways/stoplights/etc. The detector network concept is intended to help defend urban areas against nuclear attack by adversaries. The network has two potential functions: to detect and localize the covert transport of nuclear materials or weapons

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Causes & Explanations of Suicide Terrorism: A Systematic Review

By Vanessa Harmon, Edin Mujkic, Catherine Kaukinen, & Henriikka Weir Abstract The frequency of suicide terrorist attacks has increased dramatically since the year 2000, creating a renewed interest in this area of study, as well as an increase in the importance of understanding individual and organizational motivations behind engagement in suicide terrorism. The following is

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Risk-Based Performance Metrics for Critical Infrastructure Protection? A Framework for Research and Analysis

By Eric F. Taquechel & Marina Saitgalina   Abstract Measuring things that do not occur, such as “deterred” or “prevented” terrorist attacks, can be difficult. Efforts to establish meaningful risk-based performance metrics and performance evaluation frameworks based on such metrics, for government agencies with counterterrorism missions, are arguably in a nascent state. However, by studying

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Learning From H.I.M. (Harvey, Irma, Maria): Preliminary Impressions for Supply Chain Resilience

By Phillip J. Palin [The observations and analysis offered reflect the author’s best judgment as of late 2017. The essay is intended to encourage more detailed research and deeper consideration.] Abstract The 2017 Atlantic hurricane season challenged critical infrastructure and key resources across a wide area. Harvey, Irma, and Maria each exposed different aspects of

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Operator Driven Policy: Deriving Action From Data Using The Quadrant Enabled Delphi (QED) Method

By Lilian Alessa, Sean Moon, David Griffith & Andrew Kliskey   Abstract To close the gap in operator-driven policy for the homeland security enterprise, we argue for a bottom-up policy process that acknowledges operator knowledge and opinions. We propose a practical approach to enable policy-makers to incorporate operator knowledge and experience, or operator driven policy

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SCADA Fusion With Commercial Fission

by Matthew Horner Abstract Nuclear power plants rely on digital components, like supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) devices, to perform daily operations. These devices can contain software vulnerabilities. To address SCADA and other cyber threats, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued directives for licensed operators to submit cybersecurity plans for their facilities.

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Book Review: Illusions of Terrorism & Counter-Terrorism by Richard English

reviewed by Scott Romaniuk Suggested Citation Romaniuk, Scott. “Book Review: Illusions of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism by Richard English (Ed.). (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015). 174pp., £40.00 (h/b), ISBN 9780197265901.” Homeland Security Affairs 14, Article 5 (April 2018). https://www.hsaj.org/articles/14313   Terrorism, counter-terrorism, and their intersection have produced painful experiences for peoples and communities in many societies.

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Defected from ISIS or Simply Returned, and for How Long?– Challenges for the West in Dealing with Returning Foreign Fighters

by Anne Speckhard, PhD., Ardian Shajkovci, PhD., & Ahmet S. Yayla, PhD. Abstract Many of the 38,000 foreign fighters ISIS has managed to attract to Syria and Iraq will return home. As increasing numbers of ISIS cadres flee the battlefield, some as defectors and others as returnees still aligned with ISIS’ goals and ideology, the challenges

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Improving Maritime Transportation Security in Response to Industry Consolidation

by Nick Monacelli   Abstract Containerized cargo is the single largest security vulnerability in maritime shipping. Recent consolidation in the maritime shipping industry, along with freefalling shipping rates and increased vessel sizes, combine to cause concern for the future of containerized shipping security. Maintaining security in the maritime shipping industry is critical. Programs including the

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Book Review: Preventing and Countering Extremism and Terrorist Recruitment: A Best Practice Guide by Hanif Qadir

reviewed by Caitlin Ambrozik   Suggested Citation Ambrozik, Caitlin. “Book Review: Preventing and Countering Extremism and Terrorist Recruitment: A Best Practice Guide by Hanif Qadir (Melton, Woodbridge: John Catt Educational Ltd, 2016).” Homeland Security Affairs 14, Article 3 (January 2018). https://www.hsaj.org/articles/14267         A parent logs into a child’s computer and a chat

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Cyber Border Security – Defining and Defending a National Cyber Border

by Phillip Osborn Abstract Concerns stemming from the convergence of border and cyber security threats are nothing new to those involved in both disciplines. Criminals and foreign actors have been exploiting computers and cyber methods to circumvent physical border security for decades. Today nearly every crime or homeland security threat that once required some physical

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Applying an Organizational Framework to Examine Jihadi Organizations as an Industry

by Michael Logan, Gina Ligon, and Douglas Derrick Abstract The Leadership of the Extreme and Dangerous for Innovative Results (LEADIR) project, funded by The Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate, Office of University Programs (DHS S&T OUP) since 2010, uses an industrial and organizational psychology approach to assess the characteristics of violent extremist

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Incorporating Prioritization in Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience Programs

by Duane Verner, Frederic Petit, and Kibaek Kim Abstract Protecting critical infrastructure, especially in a complex urban area or region, should focus on identifying and prioritizing potential failure points that would have the most severe consequences. Such prioritization can inform targeted planning and investment decisions, such as what infrastructure should be hardened or relocated first

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A Right-Brained Approach to Critical Infrastructure Protection Theory in support of Strategy and Education: Deterrence, Networks, Resilience, and “Antifragility”

By Eric F. Taquechel and Ted G. Lewis Abstract How is the theory behind critical infrastructure/key resources (CIKR) protection evolving? Practitioners who implement strategies should be confident their strategies are based on sound theory, but theory evolves just as strategy evolves. Many theories, techniques, and models/simulations for CIKR protection have been proposed and developed over

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The Roots of Community Resilience: A Comparative Analysis of Structural Change in Four Gulf Coast Hurricane Response Networks

by Thomas W. Haase, Gunes Ertan, and Louise K. Comfort Abstract Despite the emphasis on resilience, disasters continue to challenge the response capacities of communities around the United States. These challenges are generated by the complexities and uncertainties present in the post-disaster environment. This article presents the findings of an exploratory investigation into the development

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Unpacking and Exploring the Relationship between Crisis Management and Social Media in the Era of ‘Smart Devices’

by Eric K. Stern Abstract The rise of social media and the broad diffusion of ‘smart devices’ in contemporary society have profound implications for crisis management. The emergence of social media and smart devices pose both major challenges and major opportunities to crisis managers (c.f. Palen, 2008; Veil et 2011). These social practices and technologies

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The Cold War on Terrorism: Reevaluating Critical Infrastructure Facilities as Targets for Terrorist Attacks

by David Riedman Portions of this article are excerpted from the author’s Center for Homeland Defense and Security master’s degree thesis “How Critical is Critical Infrastructure?” The full document is available in the Homeland Security Digital Library.1 Countries are inverted pyramids that rest precariously on their strategic innards–their leadership, communications, key production, infrastructure, and population.

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Cognitive Defense: Influencing the Target Choices of Less Sophisticated Threat Actors

by Jesse Wasson & Christopher Bluesteen Abstract With the emergence of non-state threats and new operating environments since the end of the Cold War, the relevance of deterrence as a security tool has repeatedly been called into doubt. Modern adversaries often lack territory, militaries, economies, or even identities to threaten and retaliate against. Their motivations are

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Coordination in Crises: Implementation of the National Incident Management System by Surface Transportation Agencies

by Nicholas B. Hambridge, Arnold M. Howitt, & David W. Giles Abstract For more than a decade, the National Incident Management System (NIMS) has served in the United States as the mandated framework for coordinated organization, operational command, and implementation of response to emergencies nationwide. This article examines whether surface transportation agencies are developing the capabilities

Fully Autonomous Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device—Mitigating Strategies

Kevin Knopf EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Terrorists throughout the world use vehicle borne improvised explosive devices (VBIEDs) to attack targets. The availability of fully autonomous vehicles (FAVs) will change terrorism tactics by eliminating the need for martyrdom when delivering VBIEDs. As such, counter-terrorism forces must ask: What FAV technologies can be adapted to mitigate the threat of

Applying Technology Acceptance Research to Information Systems Implementation in the Fire Service

John Steward EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The role of a firefighter has remained relatively static over the years, but the way a firefighter documents an incident and accesses logs, maps, and a range of forms is changing from existing paper-based practices to digital media and its related systems. Staffing, incident reporting, response mapping, resource allocation, supply tracking,

Punching above Their Weight: The Homeland Security Contributions of the U.S. Pacific Territories

Colby Stanton EXECUTIVE SUMMARY It seems today that little attention is paid to the United States’ Pacific territories by those outside the Pacific. Indeed, while the U.S. Caribbean territory of Puerto Rico has received considerable media attention since Hurricane Maria struck, it seems that the United States’ Pacific territories—this thesis focuses on Guam, the Commonwealth

Autonomous Police Vehicles: The Impact on Law Enforcement

Andrew Gregg EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Technology, like art, is a soaring exercise of the human imagination. —Daniel Bell In the past several years, the autonomous vehicle has evolved from a possibility to an inevitability. AV technology will undoubtedly impact public safety services, including law enforcement agencies. Law enforcement can embrace AV technology with the advent of