The Journal of the NPS Center for Homeland Defense and Security

Volume XI - 2015

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Volume X - 2014

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A Tribute to Alis Gumbiner

This volume of Homeland Security Affairs and the Journal’s new online format is dedicated to its long-time managing editor Alis Gumbiner.  This past fall, Alis stepped down after nine years at the helm.  Alis was instrumental in the Journal’s early years in taking the initial vision and making it a reality.  She worked her magic […]

Measuring the Deterrence Value of Securing Maritime Supply Chains against WMD Transfer and Measuring Subsequent WMD Risk Reduction

Eric Taquechel, Ian Hollan, and Ted Lewis ABSTRACT:  We propose a methodology to analyze the risk of an adversary exploiting the maritime supply chain by smuggling a WMD in a container. We call this risk “WMD transfer risk”. We describe an extension of an existing modeling/simulation tool wherein we show how to quantify the deterrence […]

A Cautionary Note on Qualitative Risk Ranking of Homeland Security Threats

Daniel J. Rozell ABSTRACT: Qualitative risk ranking systems are often used to assess homeland security threats due to their simplicity and intuitive nature. However, their appropriate use is limited by subtle common underlying difficulties that render them inconsistent with quantitative risk assessments. A better way to assess homeland security threats is to use simple fully quantitative […]

Resilience Redux: Buzzword or Basis for Homeland Security

Jerome H. Kahan ABSTRACT: Since 9/11, resilience, a term used widely in many disciplines, has occupied a place in homeland security policy and programs. Peaking in importance as the last decade ended, resilience has begun to retreat as an official driver of U.S. homeland security strategy. Preparedness, which can yield resilience as one of its outcomes, […]

Notes from the Editor (Vol. X)

June 2014 Two essays publishing this month expand the debate over the emergency response aspect of homeland security. Mac Kemp argues that emergency medical services are a vital component of homeland security and as such the role of EMS needs to be expanded. In “EMS and Homeland Security” he recommends five ways in which EMS […]

Book Review: The Siege of Mecca by Yaroslav Trofimov (New York: Doubleday, 2007)

Matthew Magolan ABSTRACT: Matthew Magolan reviews the book, The Siege of Mecca, by Yaroslav Trofimov (New York: Doubleday, 2007) SUGGESTED CITATION: Magolan, Matthew. “Book Review: The Siege of Mecca by Yaroslav Trofimov (New York: Doubleday, 2007).” Homeland Security Affairs 10, Article 7 (June 2014).  https://www.hsaj.org/articles/265 The terrorist siege of the Grand Mosque at Mecca in […]

Book Review: James Phelps, Jeff Dailey, and Monica Koenigsberg, Border Security (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2014)

Robert J. Bunker ABSTRACT: Robert J. Bunker reviews the book, Border Security, by James Phelps, Jeff Dailey, and Monica Koenigsberg. (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2014) SUGGESTED CITATION: Bunker, Robert J.. “Book Review: James Phelps, Jeff Dailey, and Monica Koenigsberg, Border Security (Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2014).” Homeland Security Affairs 10, Article 6 (June […]

Leveraging Emergency Notification Alerts

Michael Leiva ABSTRACT: This essay argues for the importance of either creating a new alert system or changing the criteria of the current Emergency Alert System. Such an alert system is critical in assisting emergency managers and law enforcement personnel with communicating safety and security concerns. To use the current system, local and state government […]

EMS and Homeland Security

Mac Kemp ABSTRACT: Emergency Medical Services (EMS) is a vital partner in everyday emergency response and in homeland security. To date EMS has not been included in most homeland security activities and EMS needs to expand its role in this enterprise. EMS should play a greater role in disaster response, recovery, intelligence gathering, fusion centers, […]

Notes from the Editor (IEEE Supplement 2014)

Supplement: IEEE 2013 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Homeland Security Affairs is proud to again publish the best papers from the IEEE Conference on Technology for Homeland Security. The 2013 conference selected one paper as the “best” overall, plus one “best” paper from each of four tracks: Attack Prep, Biometrics and Forensics, […]

Analysis of the Effects of Image Transformation, Template Selection, and Partial Information on Face Recognition with Time-Varying Expressions For Homeland Security Applications

Supplement: IEEE 2013 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Iliana V. Voynichka and Dalila B. Megherbi ABSTRACT: Awarded Best Paper Overall Facial recognition, especially with time-varying facial expressions and/or disguises, is crucial in many homeland security applications. The recent Boston Marathon attack is one example reminder of the importance of developing accurate and […]

Recent Developments in Voice Biometrics: Robustness and High Accuracy

Supplement: IEEE 2013 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Nicolas Scheffer, Luciana Ferrer, Aaron Lawson, Yun Lei, and Mitchell McLaren ABSTRACT: Awarded Best Paper in the Biometrics and Forensics track. Recently, researchers have tackled difficult voice biometrics problems that resonate with the defense and research communities. These problems include non-ideal recording conditions that […]

Towards A Theory of Autonomous Reconstitution of Compromised Cyber-Systems

Supplement: IEEE 2013 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Pradeep Ramuhalli, Mahantesh Halappanavar, Jamie Coble, and Mukul Dixit ABSTRACT: Awarded Best Paper in the Cyber Security track. Effective reconstitution approaches for cyber systems are needed to keep critical infrastructure operational in the face of an intelligent adversary. The reconstitution response, including recovery and […]

Maritime Detection of Radiological/Nuclear Threats with Hybrid Imaging System

Supplement: IEEE 2013 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Anthony L. Hutcheson, Bernard F. Phlips, Eric A. Wulf, Lee J. Mitchell, W. Neil Johnson, and Byron E. Leas ABSTRACT: Awarded Best Paper in the Borders and Maritime Security track. Improved detection of weapons of mass destruction is one of the Science and Technology […]

A Customized Modeling and Simulation Tool for Port and Airport Evacuation and Recovery: An Integrated Tool for Enhancing Preparedness and Response

Supplement: IEEE 2013 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Paul A. Belella and Bethann Rooney ABSTRACT: Awarded Best Paper in the Attack Prep track. Effective planning for the evacuation of port and airport facilities during or in advance of an event, and for the recovery of normal operations after an event, requires a […]

Towards a Unified Homeland Security Strategy: An Asset Vulnerability Model

Richard White ABSTRACT: The 2013 National Infrastructure Protection Plan represents the latest attempt to rectify a faltering program that has suffered from the absence of a viable risk measure. This article introduces an Asset Vulnerability Model (AVM) to overcome recognized challenges and provide strategic direction in the form of (1) baseline analysis, (2) cost-benefit analysis, […]

Hybrid Targeted Violence: Challenging Conventional “Active Shooter” Response Strategies

Tracy L. Frazzano and G. Matthew Snyder ABSTRACT: Hybrid Targeted Violence (HTV) is defined as an intentional use of force to cause physical injury or death to a specifically identified population using multifaceted conventional weapons and tactics. This article introduces the HTV concept to challenge first responders to prepare for violent “hybrid” multi-threat incidents. These […]

Preparedness Revisited: W(h)ither PPD-8?

Jerome H. Kahan ABSTRACT: The most important purpose of Presidential Policy Directive (PPD-8) on national preparedness is to establish a foundation that can be adapted to and utilized by stakeholders of all kinds and at all public and private levels. PPD-8 appeared somewhat abruptly on the scene, essentially replacing Homeland Security Policy Directive (HSPD-8), which […]

Web Tutorial: Risk Methods and Models

Dr. Ted Lewis gives a Web Tutorial on Risk Methods and Models.  See the entire Tutorial or first watch the introduction.

Notes from the Editor (Vol. IX)

August 2013 Current contributors to Homeland Security Affairs address the intersection of public and private interests and how that intersection can influence homeland security. Ryan Hallahan and Jon M. Peha look at how commercial broadband networks could be made available to public safety users as a means of increasing the capacity and coverage currently available […]

Supply Chain Resilience: Diversity + Self-organization = Adaptation

Philip Palin ABSTRACT: In the last three decades a collection of linear supply chains has become a complex adaptive network of demand creating supply. The benefits are obvious. The risks tend to be insidious. With the 2012 National Strategy for Global Supply Chain Security and the 2013 Implementation Update on the strategy, a public-private process […]

Enabling Public Safety Priority Use of Commercial Wireless Networks

Ryan Hallahan and Jon M. Peha ABSTRACT: By providing public safety users with roaming access to commercial broadband networks on a priority basis, it’s possible to increase the capacity, coverage, and reliability beyond what’s possible with dedicated public safety networks alone. This article quantifies the advantages with respect to capacity, showing that by establishing multiple […]

Ami J. Abou-bakr, Managing Disasters through Public-Private Partnerships (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013)

Austen D. Givens ABSTRACT: Austin D. Givens reviews Managing Disasters through Public-Private Partnerships by Ami J. Abou-bakr SUGGESTED CITATION: Givens, Austen D. “Ami J. Abou-bakr, Managing Disasters through Public-Private Partnerships (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2013).” Homeland Security Affairs 9, Article 12 (August 2013) http://www.hsaj.org/articles/249 A massive tornado tore a seventeen-mile path through Moore, Oklahoma […]

The Plan, Type, Source, Report Cycle: A Unifying Concept for National Guard Preparedness

David W. Smith ABSTRACT: Unity of effort in homeland response operations has proven over the last decade to be an elusive target. National Guard contributions to homeland response are no exception. Much effort has gone into creation of a dual status commander, and rightfully so. But, much low hanging fruit remains in the form of […]

The Two Faces of DHS: Balancing the Department’s Responsibilities

Jerome H. Kahan ABSTRACT: In forming the Department of Homeland Security (DHS), many of the twenty-two entities transferred to the new Department brought with them a smorgasbord of non-homeland security responsibilities, such as processing legal immigration and enforcing immigration laws, intercepting illegal cross-border trafficking in drugs and arms, enforcing our customs regulations, and keeping our […]

Letter to the Editor: Homeland Security Education — Response to Michael W. Collier

William V. Pelfrey Sr. and William D. Kelley Jr. Mr. Collier’s criticisms of our article, “Homeland Security Education: A Way Forward,” seem to revolve around five issues: Our coverage of homeland security education was partial, not “overall”: Our research methods produced no generalizability and ignored the private sector; We ignored the latest efforts in curriculum […]

Letter to the Editor: Homeland Security Education

Michael W. Collier “Homeland Security Education: A Way Forward,” by William Pelfrey and William Kelley and published in the February 2013 issue of Homeland Security Affairs provides some valuable insights but only a partial view of the overall situation with homeland security education. The methodology used by Pelfrey and Kelley does not support their inference […]

There’s a Pattern Here: The Case to Integrate Environmental Security into Homeland Security Strategy

James D. Ramsay and Terrence M. O’Sullivan ABSTRACT: The time is long overdue to acknowledge that global climate and resource stresses, encompassed by the concept of environmental security (ES), are an increasingly important part of “homeland” security (HS) study and practice, by even the most restricted definitions of HS. Environmental security issues will affect global […]

Entrepreneurial Security: A Free-Market Model for National Economic Security

Shawn F. Peppers ABSTRACT: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) indicates that the majority of the nation’s critical infrastructure is owned by the private sector. However, from a policy standpoint, the potential role the entrepreneur and the free-market system might play in critical infrastructure and key resource (CIKR) risk management may not be fully appreciated. […]

Notes from the Editor (IEEE Supplement 2013)

Supplement: IEEE 2012 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security: Best Papers Homeland Security Affairs is proud to publish the best papers from the IEEE 2012 Conference on Technology for Homeland Security. Download the full issue. The award for best conference paper overall went to “A Compressed Sensing Approach for Detection of Explosive Threats at Standoff […]