The Crime-Terrorism Nexus, and the Threat to U.S. Homeland Security

Mike Schofield EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   Since 2001, violent sub-national groups with disparate ideologies and motivations have been working together to further their objectives. They are collaborating, sharing each other’s tactics, and learning from one another’s successes and failures. To comprehend fully the complex nature of the nexus or convergence of transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) and

The Role of North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in Military Cyber Attack Warning

Randall DeGering EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since 1958, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) has a proven history of adapting and evolving to meet changing military defense challenges using new technology—from its early years providing ground-based radar warning of approaching Soviet bombers, to ground-based radar warning of in-bound Soviet ICBMS, to satellite-based warning of any missile launch

Applying Systems Thinking to Law Enforcement Safety: Recommendation for a Comprehensive Safety Management Framework

Maggie DeBoard EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   Each year, more than 100 law enforcement officers are killed on the job in training accidents, operations, and emergency response.[1] Fatalities, however, tell only part of the story. Although accurate statistics for police officer injuries do not exist, estimates indicate that “approximately 100,000 police officers experience occupational injuries or illnesses

Autonomous and Connected Vehicles: A Law Enforcement Primer

Jerry Davis EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   Throughout the existence of man, there have been creations that have intertwined themselves in every facet of the human experience. Those that immediately come to mind and have evolved over centuries to the benefit and sometimes the chagrin of society include electricity, medicine, and weaponry of every description. The preeminent

Serious Games in FEMA Regional Response Coordination Center Training and Exercises

Randy Brawley EXECUTIVE SUMMARY By all accounts, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) was not prepared for the overwhelming nature and catastrophic effects of Hurricane Katrina. Despite the lessons learned in Katrina, when Hurricane Sandy struck, only 47% of FEMA’s identified required positions were filled by qualified personnel, 25% were filled by trainees, and 28% were

Security and Prosperity: Reexamining the Connection Between Economic, Homeland and National Security

Bijan Karimi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   The relationship between homeland and economic security sounds so casual in the 2014 Quadrennial Homeland Security Review. It states, “Homeland security supports economic security.”[1] So it is surprising that this connection is embraced with little qualitative or quantitative evidence. The initial focus of this research sought to explore the connection

Building Automation System Cyber Networks: An Unmitigated Risk to Federal Facilities

Shawn Tupper EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   In 2007, Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act, directing all government agencies to reduce their buildings’ energy levels by 30 percent by 2015.[1] Accordingly, the General Services Administration (GSA), responsible for managing federal facilities, began taking the necessary steps to accomplish this goal.[2] In 2012, to reduce energy