People First Homeland Security: Recalibrating for Community Collaboration & Engagement within a Homeland Security Ecosystem

Angela Yvonne English EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since the creation of a Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2002, the practice of homeland security has been constructed around a top-down system, reactive in nature, based primarily on responding to terrorist acts and natural disasters. When security becomes a reactive enterprise, pursued only after threats become manifest, the

Silent Warning: Understanding the National Terrorism Advisory System

Roy B. Brush EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Terrorism warning systems provide warnings for internal (organizational or for official decision makers) and external (other partner organizations or the public) categories of constituents. They must support resolution of the decision maker’s dilemma and balance between the need to warn people in danger from terrorism with the need to maintain

TSA Behavior Detection: Changing with the Times

Brent A. Cotton EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Transportation Security Administration’s (TSA) Screening Passengers by Observation Techniques (SPOT) program is under intense scrutiny by Congress, and in danger of losing funding. Recent reports by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Office of Inspector General (OIG) have identified several areas for operational

The Major Crimes Task Force-Afghanistan: A Case Study and Examination of Implications for Future FBI Capacity Building Programs

Stephen A. Cyrus EXECUTIVE SUMMARY THE CURRENT PROBLEM SPACE The threat to the United States (U.S.) homeland and U.S. interests abroad posed by international terrorism has changed dramatically since the United States started its global war on terror (GWOT) in response to the attacks of September 11, 2001. While U.S. and international efforts in support

Florida Law Enforcement’s Role in Agroterrorism

Benjamin E. Burns EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The food and agriculture sector is one of the United States’ most important critical infrastructures, with agriculture and agribusiness related industries employing over 16 million Americans and representing 4.8 percent of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product according to the United States Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service. Agriculture is a

Leading Preparedness for Local Fire Agencies

Steven R. Goble EXECUTIVE SUMMARY President Barack Obama directed the development of a national preparedness strategy that is set out in Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (PPD-8). The applicability of PPD-8 and the implementing strategies for fire agencies is in question; and the relevance and benefits of the guidance are ambiguous. If the guidance

Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

Deanne I. Harwood EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Society is increasingly dependent upon the Internet and the systems delivered through it. These systems help ensure that they deliver and maintain essential services in the face of attacks, failures, and accidents. Our critical infrastructure sector is reliant on networked environments for its daily operation. It is these systems that

Analysis of C3 Counterinsurgency Inspired Policing, and the Flip Side of the COIN

Bruce Hiorns EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Introduction As a result of its drugs- and gang-related violence, in 2011, the city of Springfield, Massachusetts was ranked the twelfth most violent city in the United States, according to data gathered from the Uniform Crime Report of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). [1]  The rise in violence followed the

The National Network of Fusion Centers: Perception and Reality

Nicholas Klem EXECUTIVE SUMMARY State and major urban area fusion centers became one of the many organizational innovations to the United States’ national security arsenal after the attacks on 9/11. These entities were designed to aid the nation in combating terrorism through analysis, operations, and information sharing. Many of these fusion centers have evolved over

Prison Radicalization in County Jails: Disrupting Terrorist Acts Through Information Sharing

Douglas R. Lee EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Radicalization, the process by which Westerners embrace the teachings of the radical Islam, is of great concern to United States (U.S.) officials. The motivations for radicalization vary, but experts agree that prison environments are conducive for such a conversion of ideology. A number of former prisoners who radicalized while incarcerated