Volume XII

Volume XII

NORAD

What is NORAD’s Role in Military Cyber Attack Warning?

For more than fifty years, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) has been responsible for conducting aerospace warning and control missions for the defense of North America. In accomplishing those operations, Commander NORAD is responsible for making the official warning to both the president of the United States and the prime minister of Canada if North America is suddenly under aerospace attack.

By Randall DeGering

Fortress

The Fortress Problem

Fortresses do not usually fail well. When they rely on robustness or complication, positions of strength are only tolerant of stress up to a defined point or of a certain character. For a fortification that fails to adapt, centralization—even of strength—presents a surprising liability.

By Jack Sheldon Anderson

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