Volume I

Volume I

Maritime Critical Infrastructure Protection: Multi-Agency Command and Control in an Asymmetric Environment

As a maritime nation, the United States is economically and strategically reliant on its ports, a fact well known to our potential enemies in the Global War on Terror. A successful attack against maritime critical infrastructure in our ports has the potential to cause major economic disruption and create mass casualties and conflagration.

By Robert Watts

Using Organizations: The Case of FEMA

FEMA was used once before, under President Reagan, for counter-terrorism and as a result, natural disaster response and mitigation suffered. It was repaired under President Clinton, but again, counter-terrorism has eaten up FEMA’s natural disaster budget and skills.

By Charles Perrow

Changing Homeland Security: An Opportunity for Competence

Hurricane Katrina shattered belief that the nation’s homeland security system was ready for a major terrorist attack. Public administrators staff that system. Katrina provides an opportunity to review the central normative premise of public administration: competence.

By Christopher Bellavita

Hurricane Katrina as a Predictable Surprise

The concept of predictable surprises, i.e. failures to take preventative action in the face of known threats, was outlined by Max Bazerman and Michael Watkins in their book by the same name. This paper discusses predictable surprises as primarily organizational events that result from failure of organizational processes to support surprise-avoidance rather than surprise-conducive actions by individual members.

By Larry Irons

Transforming Border Security: Prevention First

The events of September 11, 2001 caused the nation’s leaders to accelerate existing border programs aimed at prevention. Traditionally, the “prevention” of border violations has involved interdiction (physically impeding any incursion while it is occurring), preemption (through routine screening to intercept illegal shipments, weapons, people, or other illicit cargo), and deterrence (where an action taken means a potential violator does not plan or even attempt an illegal entry).

By Robert Bach

What is Preventing Homeland Security?

Almost four years have gone by since the United States formally joined the global war on terrorism. Yet something stops us from giving as much attention to preventing terrorism as we give to preparing to respond to the next attack. One reason is a homeland security system that is designed for response rather than prevention.

By Christopher Bellavita

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