When Green and Blue Collide: The Relative Superiority Theory and Law Enforcement Incidents

Harley LenArt EXECUTIVE SUMMARY We sleep safe in our beds because rough men [and women] stand ready in the night to visit violence on those who would do us harm. ~ George Orwell In “21st Century Firearms Training,” David Griffith claims, “Criminals are getting smarter, faster, and more deadly than ever before.” When criminals are

There Are No Monsters in the Closet: Why Fire Departments Are Not Implementing Best Concepts for Active Assailant Incidents

David Sabat EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Fire departments are encouraged to implement best concepts to rapidly access casualties during active assailant events. Despite these recommendations, fire services across the country are not consistently developing and implementing policies that reflect best practices. Further, the best concepts offered in the extant literature indicate that rapid access to victims requires

Responding to High-Rise Active Shooters

James Seebock EXECUTIVE SUMMARY On October 1, 2017, a mass shooting took place at an outdoor concert in Las Vegas that killed fifty-eight people. Unlike active shooters who are on the same plane as the victim, the Las Vegas shooter perched himself vertically above his victims in a high-rise building. In doing so, he created

Early Warning: A Strategy to Prevent Injuries and Loss of Life during Active Shooter Attacks on K-12 Schools

Susan Graves EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Schools are susceptible to active shooter attacks. Studies show these attacks occur quickly, often within minutes of when an intruder enters a school.[1] Many strategies to prevent injuries and loss of life have emerged. One of these, lockdown, is a commonly accepted practice that shows some success at reducing injuries and

Active-Shooter Response: Defensive Tactics and Tactical Decision-Making for Elementary School Teachers and Staff

John Whitney IV EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Active shooter events are not a new threat to educational facilities.[1] They remain a consistent threat and have the potential for significant impact.[2] Since the 1999 Columbine High School shootings, school-based active shooter events have remained in the public’s awareness as a potential threat.[3] Response strategies need to evolve beyond