Validating Deterrence Models for Scanning Technologies

By George Thompson Abstract The use of scanning systems (e.g., radiation portal monitors and X-ray imagers) at border checkpoints is said to act as a deterrent to the smuggling of radiological/nuclear materials, drugs, and other illicit items. Can such deterrent effects be measured? The author examines “extended” screening models that incorporate the motivations, perceptions, and

Electronic Border Searches after Riley

Aaron Bode EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The border search doctrine authorizes U.S. customs officers to conduct warrantless, suspicion-less searches of persons and property crossing the U.S. border.[1] Since the Supreme Court’s 2014 decision in Riley v. California, arguments that electronic devices and their accompanying data qualify as a different type of property that should be protected from

Border Management in Europe: Is the Paradigm Evolving?

By Nadav Morag Abstract This article focuses on the European Union’s approach to border management. The concept of border management includes not only: 1) the physical control over borders and the flow of goods and persons through ports of entry; but also 2) the management of immigration, migrant flows, and asylum request;, as well as

Capability Gaps Threatening CBP’s Present and Future Operations

By Thomas P.M. Barnett Abstract Thanks to an enduring burst of domestic populism, the United States is knee-deep in a tumultuous renegotiation of its superpower relationship with the world. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) faces two possible paths: transformation or trivialization. The agency either embraces the mission-creep demanded by this moment or surrenders responsibility to

Application of Big Data Analytics to Support Homeland Security Investigations Targeting Human Smuggling Networks

Thomas Hodge EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The continuous pressure from large volumes of aliens attempting to enter the country illegally creates a persistent challenge for the 20,000 office of border patrol (OBP) agents attempting to apprehend hundreds of thousands of aliens annually.[1] Human smuggling organizations (HSO) facilitating the smuggling of aliens into the United States have an

Follow the Silk Road: How Internet Affordances Influence and Transform Crime and Law Enforcement

Ryan Jerde EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This thesis studies the changing typology of border-related crime being driven by Internet technologies. Internet technologies are moving elements of crime, understood to be physical, to the digital realm. Drug trafficking, human trafficking and sexual exploitation, and money laundering are some of the crimes being facilitated by Internet technologies. The evolution

An Arizona Border Wall Case Study

Justin Bristow EXECUTIVE SUMMARY A recurring question regarding U.S. border security is how effective a wall is in terms of investment and utility. The comments are many, from the wall providing a deterrent and preventing illegal border crossings to resourceful smugglers finding ways to circumvent the wall completely. The purpose of the wall is to

Border Patrol, Social Media and Transnational Messaging

Kathleen Christie EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Social media has penetrated every aspect of society and provided people with instant gratification and communication avenues. Social media is also a low-cost, high-capacity vehicle for law enforcement to communicate with the public. However, law enforcement agencies are only beginning to use this tool for community engagement. Police departments have leveraged

Leveraging Gamification Techniques and Strategies as a Means of Improving Border Security Data Collection

Joseph Coulter Executive Summary Gamification concentrates on the application of game elements to non-gaming contexts and has served as an emerging trend towards engagement and data collection. This thesis seeks to apply the methods and procedures of gamification systems towards the data gathering processes utilized by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) as part of

Beyond Sister City Agreements: Exploring the Challenges to Full International Interoperability

Calvin Shanks EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Border communities are often interconnected by more than simple proximity. They are connected through social networks, economies, cultures, and by shared natural resources. The more closely connected the communities are, the more likely they are to be mutually impacted by a significant emergency event. In a metroplex region where commercial trade