The Role of North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) in Military Cyber Attack Warning

Randall DeGering EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since 1958, North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) has a proven history of adapting and evolving to meet changing military defense challenges using new technology—from its early years providing ground-based radar warning of approaching Soviet bombers, to ground-based radar warning of in-bound Soviet ICBMS, to satellite-based warning of any missile launch

Building Automation System Cyber Networks: An Unmitigated Risk to Federal Facilities

Shawn Tupper EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   In 2007, Congress passed the Energy Independence and Security Act, directing all government agencies to reduce their buildings’ energy levels by 30 percent by 2015.[1] Accordingly, the General Services Administration (GSA), responsible for managing federal facilities, began taking the necessary steps to accomplish this goal.[2] In 2012, to reduce energy

Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

Deanne I. Harwood EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Society is increasingly dependent upon the Internet and the systems delivered through it. These systems help ensure that they deliver and maintain essential services in the face of attacks, failures, and accidents. Our critical infrastructure sector is reliant on networked environments for its daily operation. It is these systems that