The Effects of Hypervigilance on Decision-Making during Critical Incidents

Paul Junger EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Every year police are involved in deadly force encounters that mortally wound citizens. Several high-profile incidents, like the fatal shooting of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri, the fatal chokehold of Eric Garner by a New York City police officer, and the fatal shooting of James Boyd killed by an Albuquerque, New

Civilians on Police Use-of-Force Review Boards: A Delphi Study of Six Police Departments

John Breckenridge EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Civilian involvement in the oversight of law enforcement has been debated for many years. Much of the debate surrounds the citizen complaint process and the extent to which civilian involvement improves the process and outcomes. On one side, law enforcement claims that civilians do not understand what it is like to

Not Just another Piece of Equipment: An Analysis for Police Body-Worn Camera Policy Decisions

Giacomo Sacca EXECUTIVE SUMMARY There is broad national interest in equipping law enforcement officers with body-worn cameras (BWC). Political debate on the subject is fierce, and federal grant funding for providing personnel at the local levels is ongoing.[1] However, contradicting reports exist on the technology’s impact and effectiveness.[2] Initial studies on the use of BWCs

When The Shooting Stops: Recovery From Active-Shooter Events For K-12 Schools

Doug Berglund EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Since Columbine, many schools and public safety agencies have focused their attention on improving response protocols to active-shooter incidents.[1] The attention applied to response, while appropriately applied, has come at the expense of a focus on recovery. In spite of the increasing trend of active-shooter incidents at K-12 schools, emergency planning

From Third-Degree to Third-Generation Interrogation Methodologies: Putting Science into the Art of Criminal Interviewing

Desmond O’Neill EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Criminal interrogations are fundamentally designed to elicit confessions.[1] Beginning with the proliferation of physically abusive and aggressive tactics in the early 20th century—arguably the first generation of American interrogation strategies—law-enforcement agents employed what they deemed the most effective means for getting suspects to confess.[2] In the early 1940s, harsh “third-degree” interrogation

A Different Shade of Blue: An Evaluation of the Civilian Detective Concept and Its Impact on Police Capabilities

David Green EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   As homeland security has evolved, police roles have expanded to encompass a wider array of responsibilities. Meeting these responsibilities in austere fiscal environments, however, has become increasingly difficult for cities in financial distress. Rather than expanding, many cities have reduced capabilities by cutting large segments of their police personnel. This