911 and The Area Code From Which You Call: How To Improve The Disparity In California’s Emergency Medical Services.

Jeffrey Covitz EXECUTIVE SUMMARY There are 33 separate local emergency medical services (EMS) authority agencies serving the 58 counties in California.1 A local EMS authority (LEMSA) in California governs either EMS providers in a single county or several counties combined. Each LEMSA dictates widely different treatment and transport protocols for its paramedics.2 The medical director for

Career Paramedic-Firefighter Staffing Problems: Is Recruiting Women Part of the Solution?

Juan Byron EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This case study analyzes the shortage of applicants for career paramedic-firefighter positions and its relationship to the paucity of female firefighters. The research explores causes of the shortage, examines four case fire departments, and suggests how fire departments and communities can address these staffing challenges by including women and girls in

Applying the THIRA to Special Events: A Framework for Capabilities-Based Planning Adoption in Local Governments

Daniel Bradley EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Local officials planning for disasters at the local level must make risk-informed judgments about what capability is needed to defend against known threats and hazards while remaining adaptable to address the unforeseen. However, risk assessment tools are imperfect and sometimes not available to local governments. Presidential Policy Directive 8 (PPD-8) and

Safe Seas: Protecting America’s Ferries against Criminal Mass-Casualty Incidents

Steven Blindbury EXECUTIVE SUMMARY America has entered the era of the active-shooter phenomenon, and empirical evidence supports a rising national trend that creates a risk for all mass-gathering public venues. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) defines an active shooter as “an individual actively engaged in killing or attempting to kill people in a confined

Implementation of Active Cyber Defense Measures by Private Entities: The Need for an International Body to Address Disputes

Ike Barnes EXECUTIVE SUMMARY News reports about cyber-attacks against corporations are commonplace. A search of Google News on July 31, 2017, for cyber-attacks yielded eight articles from the same day on the first page of the search return. To address this problem, organizations such as George Washington University’s Center for Cyber and Homeland Security and

Reconsidering CVE: The Unintended Consequences of Countering Violent Extremism Efforts in America

Nabeela Barbari EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Between September 12, 2001, and December 31, 2016, there were eighty-five violent extremist attacks in the United States, which resulted in over 225 fatalities.[1] Tragically, this number became outdated almost immediately after it was reported; at least five attacks killed a dozen more people between January 2017 and November 2017. These incidents

Fusing the Four Corners: Integrating Intelligence-Led Policing Within New Mexico’s Rural and Tribal Communities

Robert Vasquez EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Collecting and sharing information is the heart of effective intelligence-led policing. One mechanism for managing law enforcement intelligence is intelligence fusion centers, which help partners share threat information between the federal, state, tribal, and local levels. The House Committee on Homeland Security, for example, has called for greater use of fusion

Conditions of Democratic Erosion: Has U.S. Democracy Reached a Tipping Point?

Christian Tubbs EXECUTIVE SUMMARY For more than half a century, academics have expressed unease over the erosion of democratic governance in the United States and abroad.[1] Scholars have regarded American democracy as a critical stabilizing force in new and emerging democracies as well as those under threat from authoritarian rule.[2] There is a growing concern—both

The Olive Branch and the Maple Leaf: A Comparative Analysis of Refugee Policies in Canada and the United States and the Potential for Blended Reform

Robert Tisdale EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The topic of immigration continues to be a divisive issue in political and social circles in the United States. Congress’s inability to craft legislatively viable immigration reform is indicative of this situation and the stalemate in which the country currently finds itself. In addition to issues surrounding the southern border, another

The Watchlist: Improving the Transparency, Accuracy, Efficiency, and Accountability of the Terrorist Screening Database

David Park EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The United States has used terrorist watchlists for over 30 years to identify, track, and screen terrorists. At first, these watchlists evolved to meet the specific requirements of individual agencies’ missions. Subsequent investigations into the failure to detect, deter, and defeat the 9/11 terror attacks revealed weaknesses in the design of